Maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies with multiple sclerosis: a case-control study

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Abstract

Objective:

To assess whether maternal multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes by determining the clinical course of disease during pregnancy and postpartum throughout a 10-year-period in a single tertiary center.

Methods:

We conducted a case-control study that included pregnancies with a definitive diagnosis of MS (n=43), matched with 100 healthy pregnant women with similar characteristics. Maternal and perinatal data were retrieved from hospital files. Groups were compared with the Mann-Whitney and χ2 tests. Logistic regression models were constructed to determine independent effects.

Results:

Maternal demographic and baseline laboratory data were similar across the groups. Rates of preterm delivery, fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, stillbirth, cesarean delivery, congenital malformation, and 5-min Apgar score were comparable (P>0.05 for all). General anesthesia during cesarean delivery (96% vs. 39%, P=0.002), urinary tract infection (UTI) (12% vs. 3%, P=0.04), low 1-min Apgar score (21% vs. 9%, P=0.04), and nonbreastfeeding (33% vs. 2%, P=0.001) were more frequent in women with MS. The low 1-min Apgar score and breastfeeding rates were independent of general anesthesia and UTI in regression models.

Conclusion:

MS during pregnancy was not associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes except UTI, low 1-min Apgar scores, and decreased breastfeeding rates.

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