Identifying Barriers and Enablers in the Dietary Management of Type 2 Diabetes in M’Bour, Senegal

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to identify cultural enablers and barriers to dietary management of type 2 diabetes in M’Bour, Senegal. This qualitative study used the PEN-3 cultural model to explore diabetes dietary management within a cultural framework. Content analysis identified emergent themes based on the PEN-3 model. Forty-one individuals completed interviews. Themes reflecting ways that culture affects adherence to the diabetic diet included (a) having a different diet or eating separately from the communal family plate creates feelings of social isolation; (b) forgoing the diabetic diet sometimes occurs so that family members have enough food; (c) reducing servings of traditional foods feels like abandoning culture; and (d) women being responsible for preparing food, while men typically manage money for purchasing food yet do not provide input on what food is purchased. Results suggest that educating family units on the dietary management of diabetes may be more effective than individual education.

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