The cytochrome P450 (CYP450) system of drug-metabolizing enzymes may contribute to individual variation in drug response. We examined prevalence of CYP450 substrates at hospital discharge for patients in two cohorts: insurance claims of Massachusetts residents and the medical records of two academic medical centers. The claims cohort included 47 473 individuals (38.2%) treated with at least one CYP450 2D6, 2C19, 3A4 or 1A2 substrate. The electronic medical records cohort included 45 905 individuals (57.4%) treated with at least one substrate. In adjusted models, substrates of CYP450 2D6 and 2C19 were associated with greater risk for 90-day readmission in both cohorts (odds ratios of 1.104 and 1.128 (P < 0.001), respectively). Presence of any CYP450 substrate was associated with increased monthly medical costs (+$397, P < 0.003). These analyses of more than 300 000 admissions using two different cohorts and data types indicate that CYP450 substrates are associated with greater readmission rates and greater health-care cost.