Evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of olivetoric and physodic acid in cultured human amnion fibroblasts
It is known that lichens are utilized for the treatment of many diseases including ulcer, diabetes, and cancer for many years. Secondary metabolites in the structure of the lichens provide various activity properties for them. In the present study, cytotoxic and oxidative effects of main constituents of Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf (Parmeliaceae), olivetoric acid (OA), and physodic acid (PA) were investigated on cultured human amnion fibroblasts (HAFs). OA and PA were isolated from P. furfuracea using column chromatography and their structures were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance. HAFs were incubated during 48 h in the presence of OA and PA, at different concentrations from 6.25 mg/L to 200 mg/L. OA showed higher cytotoxicity than PA. In fact, median inhibitory concentration values of OA and PA were 571.27 and 3373.69 mg/L, respectively. The lower concentrations (<50 mg/L) of OA and PA did not cause oxidative stress and genotoxicity; furthermore, they supported anti-oxidative capacity of HAFs. Therefore, all these data suggested that both tested metabolites, especially PA might be developed as natural health medicine to protect human body against oxidative stress and genotoxicity. As far as we know, this is the first report on the cytotoxic and anti-oxidative activities of OA and PA on HAFs.