Content validity, face validity and internal consistency of the Slovene version of Caring Factor Survey for care providers, caring for co‐workers and caring of managers

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Caring is a core concept in nursing 1. Caring as the core of nursing has roots in the care of others (children, parents, relatives) 4. This implies concern for others 5. The heart and soul of caring are being human in interpersonal relationships, or in equal partner‐like relationships 3. The most important and vital caring relationship is between care provider and the patient. Important caring relationships outside the care provider and patient are also those with co‐workers and managers. These caring relationships are important for the development of caring environment and caring culture 6. Although qualitative research is important to advance the reflective, human nature of caring and capturing the meaning and the experience of giving and receiving caring 6, for nursing it is also important to empirically measure these caring relationships. We need psychometrically sound instruments 7.
The recent history of the nursing professions sees a growing literature on caring theories and models for caring. One of the best‐known caring theorists is Watson, who points out that caring is essential to nursing, which she describes as a human science and art 3. Examination of Watson's Theory of Human Caring showed that caring can be measured by ‘Caritas’ processes. The word ‘caritas’ was introduced into caring science by Eriksson, who defined it as love and char" ity, the motivation for all caring 8. More recently, new understanding of caritas was introduced, defining it as an ‘attitude that turns the concept of care into a more ethical act’ 10. Eriksson's theory of caritative caring influenced Watson's work and development of Watson's caritas processes 6. Caritas processes are one of the main concepts of Watson's theory and for nurses the most important concept. They are described as:
There are currently seven different versions of the Caring Factor Survey (CFS) that are based on these ten‐point caritas processes 6. Care providers' self‐perception of demonstrating caring behaviours to patients within care can be measured using the Caring Factor Survey – Care Provider Version (CFS‐CP) 12. This was adapted from the original CFS 13. The instrument has 20 items that correspond to caritas processes. Respondents are asked to indicate how much they agree or disagree with each statement on a 7‐item Likert scale, where 1 is strongly disagree and 7 is strongly agree.
The Caring Factor Survey – Caring for Co‐workers (CFS‐CC) is an instrument developed from CFS to measure staff nurses' perception of their co‐workers' caring behaviours in accordance with caritas processes. The instrument has 10 items that correspond to caritas processes. Respondents are asked to indicate how much they agree or disagree with each statement on a 7‐item Likert scale, where 1 is strongly disagree and 7 is strongly agree.
The Caring Factor Survey – Caring of Manager (CFS‐CM) measures staff nurses' perception of nurse managers' caring behaviours according to caritas processes 15 as judged by care providers. As this is also an adaptation of the original CFS, the instrument has 10 items that correspond to caritas processes. Respondents are also asked to indicate how much they agree or disagree with each statement on a 7‐item Likert scale, where 1 is strongly disagree and 7 is strongly agree.
The use and refinement of these tools will help to build the science of caring 6. There is a lack of psychometrically sound instruments to measure caring based on caritas processes in the Slovene language; hence, the purpose of this study was to explore psychometric properties of a Slovenian version of CFS‐CP, CFS‐CC and CFS‐CM by evaluating its content validity, face validity and internal consistency.
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