Bone mineral density utilization in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

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Abstract

Bone disease is a major cause for morbidity in multiple myeloma (MM), with the main focus concerning the manifestation as osteolytic lesions. Bone mineral loss is another reflection of myeloma bone involvement. Recently, osteoporosis has been omitted as a defining criterion for symptomatic disease in MM. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the use of bone mineral density (BMD) exams by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) among MM patients in a tertiary medical care centre. One-hundred seventy three patients were included. The T-scores of lumbar spine (LS), left femur neck (FN) and left total hip (TH) were obtained and analysed. The extent of osteolytic disease was categorized based on six bony areas. There was a strong correlation between spine and femur's T-scores (r = 0.56-0.61, p < 0.0001), although different sets of variables were correlated with LS and femur's T-scores. There was no correlation between BMD measurements and osteolytic disease extent. Patients with vertebral fracture(s) had significant lower T-scores of the spine in comparison to patients without vertebral fractures. Sixty-three patients (36.4% of the cohort) had follow-up DXA exam. In general, there was an increase in the LS T-scores, while femoral values decreased. However, in patients who achieved complete response (CR) and in those who retained CR during follow-up, femoral BMD increased as well. Because correlation between BMD and the extent of osteolytic lesions was not seen, our data support the recent exclusion of BMD assessment from the definition of symptomatic myeloma. Still, its use should be considered for evaluation of age- or therapy-related osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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