Amelioration of radiation-induced lung injury by halofuginone: An experimental study in Wistar–Albino rats
To evaluate effects of halofuginone (H) on radiation-induced lung injury (RILI), 60 rats were divided into six groups: Group (G) 1 control, G2 radiotherapy (RT) only, G3 and G4 2. 5 and 5 μg H and G5 and G6 RT + 2.5 and 5 μg H groups, respectively. A single dose of 12 Gy RT was given to both lungs. H was applied intraperitoneally with daily doses, until animals were killed at 6 and 16 weeks after RT. At 6th and 16th weeks of RT, five rats from each group were killed. Lung tissues were dissected for light and electron microscopy. Chronic inflammation, fibrosis and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF)-β scores of all study groups were significantly different at 6th and 16th week (p < 0.001). Chronic inflammation, fibrosis and TGF-β scores of G2 were higher than G5 and G6 at 6th and 16th weeks of RT. At 16th week, fibrosis and TGF-β scores of G5 were higher than G6 (p = 0.040 and 0.028, respectively). Electron microscopical findings also supported these results. Therefore, H may ameliorate RILI. The effect of the H was more prominent at higher dose and after long-term follow-up. These findings should be clarified with further studies.