Utility of adenosine stress perfusion CMR to assess paediatric coronary artery disease

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Abstract

Aims

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), using adenosine stress perfusion and late-gadolinium enhancement (LGE), is becoming the ‘gold standard’ non-invasive imaging modality in the assessment of adults with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, despite its proved feasibility in paediatric patients, clinical utility has not been demonstrated. Therefore, this study aims to establish the role of adenosine stress perfusion CMR as a screening test in paediatric patients with acquired or congenital CAD.

Methods and results

A total of 58 paediatric patients underwent 61 consecutive clinically indicated coronary artery assessments for diagnostic and clinical decision-making purposes. The diagnosis was based on X-ray or computed tomography coronary angiography for anatomy, adenosine stress CMR imaging for myocardial perfusion and LGE for tissue characterization. Two studies were aborted because of unwanted side effects of adenosine stress, thus 59 studies were completed in 56 patients [median age 14.1 years (interquartile range 10.9–16.2)]. When compared with coronary anatomical imaging, adenosine stress perfusion CMR performed as follows: sensitivity 100% (95% confidence interval, CI: 71.6–100%), specificity 98% (95% CI: 86.7–99.9%), positive predictive value (PPV) 92.9% (95% CI: 64.2–99.6%), and negative predictive value 100% (95% CI: 89.9–100%).

Conclusion

In paediatric CAD, adenosine stress perfusion CMR imaging is adequate as an initial, non-invasive screening test for the identification of significant coronary artery lesions, with anatomical imaging used to confirm the extent of the culprit lesion.

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