Drug eluting antimicrobial vascular catheters: Progress and promise☆
Vascular catheters are critical tools in modern healthcare yet present substantial risks of serious bloodstream infections that exact significant health and economic burdens. Drug-eluting antimicrobial vascular catheters have become important tools in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infections and their importance is expected to increase as significant initiatives are expanded to eliminate and make the occurrence of these infections unacceptable. Here we review clinically significant and emerging drug-eluting antimicrobial catheters within the categories of antibiotic, antiseptic, novel bioactive agents and energy-enhanced drug eluting antimicrobial catheters. Important representatives of each category are reviewed from the standpoints of mechanisms of action, physical–chemical properties, safety, in vitro and clinical effectiveness.