The management of chronic cardiovascular diseases has evolved greatly in the last decades. Over the last thirty years, the management of acute coronary syndrome has improved, leading to an important lowering of the mortality in the acute phase of the event. Consequently, the optimal management of the secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome has greatly evolved. Moreover, the increased number of pharmacological alternatives for patients affected by chronic heart failure and by non-valvular atrial fibrillation reserves a number of challenges for their correct management. Moreover, these diseases are without any reasonable doubt the largest contributor to global mortality in the present and will continue to be it in the future.
The aim of this study was to provide the most updated information of the real-life drug use and their effectiveness. This review was performed to assess the potential knowledge gaps in the treatments of these diseases and to indicate potential perspective of pharmaco-epidemiological research in this area.