Mismatch repair system proteins in oral benign and malignant lesions

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It is known that different endogenous and exogenous agents may cause DNA mutations by disrupting its double‐strand structure 1; however, DNA damage can also be originated because of natural replication errors, including failures of DNA polymerase activity 2 that may incorporate mismatched nucleotide bases, predisposing individuals to innumerous human diseases 3.
Twelve different single‐base incorporated errors can be found 4. Because these genetic errors may pass unnoticed by the proofreading activity of DNA polymerase, the post‐replicated DNA strand is additionally checked by a mismatch repair (MMR) system that consists of a group of proteins specialized in finding not only mispairing bases, but also small loops of insertion or deletion, and ultimately providing their corrections 5.
Important new data were provided on the structure and function of MMR in the human genome stability, but its importance on the development of different malignant and potentially malignant human diseases has only recently been investigated. Therefore, in this manuscript we aimed to review the current data available on MMR expression pattern and its importance for the progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant lesions, as well as to provide an overview on their importance for the pathogenesis of other oral cavity neoplasms.
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