Anesthetic and operative considerations for laparoscopic liver resection
We enumerate the broad range of anesthetic considerations that affect the outcome of patients undergoing laparoscopic liver resection. Key elements for excellent outcomes after laparoscopic liver resection are careful patient selection and risk stratification, appropriate monitoring, techniques to reduce blood loss and transfusion, and active recovery management. Although some of these key elements are the same for open liver operation, there are specific anesthetic considerations of which both the surgical and anesthesia teams must be aware to achieve optimal patient outcomes after laparoscopic liver resection. While unique advantages of laparoscopic liver resection typically include decreased intraoperative bleeding, transfusion requirements, and a lower incidence of postoperative ascites, specific challenges include management of the complicated interplay between low-volume anesthesia and increased intraabdominal pressure due to pneumoperitoneum, with additional considerations regarding circulatory support to treat acute blood loss with need for emergent conversion in some cases. This article will address in detail the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative anesthetic considerations for patients undergoing laparoscopic liver resection that both the surgical and anesthesia team should be aware of to optimize outcomes.