Twelve-Week Rifapentine Plus Isoniazid Versus 9-Month Isoniazid for the Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis in Renal Transplant Candidates

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Abstract

Background

Renal transplant candidates (RTC) with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are at significant risk for tuberculosis reactivation. Twelve-week rifapentine (RPT)/isoniazid (INH) is effective for LTBI but clinical experience in RTC is scarce.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective study of RTC with LTBI treated with either 12-week RPT/INH or 9-month INH from March 1, 2012, through February 28, 2014. We evaluated both groups for differences in rates of treatment completion, monthly follow-up visit compliance, transaminase elevations, and adverse reactions leading to discontinuation of LTBI treatment. The utility of weekly reminders was also evaluated in the 12-week regimen. Direct observed therapy was not performed in our study.

Results

Of 153 patients, 43 (28%) and 110 (72%) were started on 12-week RPT/INH and 9-month INH, respectively. The treatment completion and monthly follow-up visit compliance rates were higher in the 12-week RPT/INH group (40 [93%] vs 52 [47%], P < 0.001) and (11/40 [28%] vs 13/104 [13%], P = 0.03), respectively. Transaminase elevations were not observed in the RPT/INH group, but occurred in 6 (5%) of the INH group. There were no differences in adverse reactions leading to discontinuation of LTBI treatment.

Conclusions

Twelve-week RPT/INH appears to be an excellent choice for LTBI in RTC. It has a higher treatment completion rate and causes less transaminase elevations, and weekly reminders may be an alternative when direct observed therapy is not feasible.

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