Small Intestinal Angioectasia: Characterization, Risk Factors, and Rebleeding

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Gastrointestinal angioectasias (AEs) represent the most common vascular malformation within the gastrointestinal tract. This study sought to characterize epidemiologic/comorbid risk factors for AEs, rebleeding, and patterns of anatomic distribution within the small intestine.


This retrospective observational cohort study included 158 patients with AEs on capsule endoscopy (CE) from 2007 to 2015. Epidemiologic/comorbid data were collected and incorporated into final analysis. Each AE was categorized by location using a small bowel transit time-based quartile system. Rebleeding was evaluated following CE. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to statistically significant factors on univariate analysis to determine independent risk factors for rebleeding.


Most lesions were found in the first quartile (67.1%). Rebleeding occurred in 46 (29.7%) of the 156 patients for whom data were available. Rates of rebleeding were significantly higher among older patients (74.4 vs. 67.7 y, P=0.001), those with active bleeding on CE (41.3% vs. 16.5%, P=0.001), those with a history of aortic stenosis (21.7% vs. 9.2%, P=0.033), and those with AEs presents in quartile 3 (26.1% vs. 8.3%, P=0.003). Age, active bleeding on CE, and AE presence in quartile 3 were independently associated with rebleeding in multivariate analysis (P=0.009, 0.023, and 0.008, respectively).


These data help improve our knowledge of AEs regarding risk factors for rebleeding, and utilizes a novel small bowel transit time-based quartile localization method that may simplify future research and comparisons of anatomic distribution and behavior of small bowel AEs.

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