Antigastric parietal cell and antithyroid autoantibodies in patients with desquamative gingivitis

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Desquamative gingivitis (DG) presents mainly as painful erosions or ulcerations of the attached and free gingivae. DG is now recognized to be a manifestation of several diseases, principally mucocutaneous autoimmune disorders such as oral lichen planus (OLP), mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP), and pemphigus vulgaris (PV) 1. Because DG is mainly associated with some specific autoimmune diseases, it is interesting to study the association of different underlying diseases (mainly OLP, MMP, or PV) with DG and to examine the presence of different types of autoantibodies in sera of patients with DG.
In our oral mucosal disease clinic, there are some patients with DG encountered in each year. For these patients with DG, serum anti‐intercellular substance antibody (ICSA), antibasement membrane zone antibody (BMZA), antigastric parietal cell antibody (GPCA), antithyroglobulin antibody (TGA), and antithyroid microsomal antibody (TMA, also known as antithyroid peroxidase antibody) were usually checked to see whether these patients with DG had an association of a specific type of autoimmune disease and possessed a particular autoantibody profile in their sera. The serum ICSA and BMZA levels were used to confirm the diagnosis of PV and MMP in patients with DG, respectively. The serum GPCA, TGA, and TMA levels were evaluated because patients with GPCA are more likely to have pernicious anemia and to develop autoimmune atrophic gastritis which may subsequently progress to gastric carcinoma 14, and patients with TGA or TMA may develop autoimmune thyroid disease and finally result in thyroid dysfunction 16. For early diagnosis and treatment of subsequent diseases, it is very important to evaluate whether patients with DG have GPCA, TGA, and TMA in their sera.
In this study, the serum autoantibodies including GPCA, TGA, and TMA were measured in 500 patients with DG, 287 EOLP without DG (EOLP/DG−) patients, and 100 healthy control subjects. The purposes of this study were to understand whether a certain percentage of DG, EOLP with DG (EOLP/DG), and EOLP/DG− patients might have GPCA, TGA, and TMA in their sera, to evaluate whether DG, EOLP/DG, and EOLP/DG− patients might have a significantly higher frequency of GPCA, TGA, or TMA positivity than healthy control subjects, to assess whether EOLP/DG patients had a significantly higher frequency of GPCA, TGA, or TMA positivity than EOLP/DG− patients, and to find whether patients with TGA/TMA positivity might have thyroid dysfunction.
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