Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a fatal complication of burn injury. Few systematic reviews to date have focused on the risk factors predisposing to AKI in patients with burn injury. The aim of this article is to identify the risk factors for the occurrence of AKI in burn patients, thus providing theoretical evidence for prevention and treatment. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies determining the prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes of AKI in patients with burn injury. An electronic search (up to April 2016) was performed using Pubmed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Library databases. Finally, a total of 18 articles (nine prospective cohort, seven retrospective cohort, two case–control) meeting the eligibility criteria were included. The pooled incidence of AKI was 39.6% (95% confidence interval = 34.7–44.4%). Significant risk factors for the occurrence of AKI included age (odds ratio [OR] = 3.78 [1.28–6.27]), TBSA (OR = 15.66 [11.01–20.31]), full-thickness TBSA (OR = 15.66 [11.01–20.31]), flame burn (OR = 1.56 [1.09–2.25]), inhalation injury (OR = 2.97 [1.80–4.89]), abbreviated burn severity index on admission (OR = 2.42 [1.87–2.98]), sequential organ failure assessment score on admission (OR = 2.69 [1.39–3.98]), baseline blood urea nitrogen (OR = 2.11 [0.72–3.51]), serum creatinine (OR = 2.69 [1.39–3.98]), and sepsis (OR = 4.42 [1.75–11.18]). In addition, burn patients with AKI are more likely to have long stay in intensive care unit and high mortality. AKI is a common complication and occurs at a remarkable rate in burn patients. We identified 10 variables as independent risk factors for the development of AKI in burn patients. Our findings may help clinicians to develop effective preventive and therapeutic strategies and provide appropriate, timely initial treatment.