Glypican‐3 distinguishes aggressive from non‐aggressive odontogenic tumors: a preliminary study

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Ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs) are benign tumors derived from the odontogenic epithelium that contain fibrous stroma without odontogenic ectomesenchyme 1. These tumors are characterized by their locally aggressive behavior and capacity for recurrence 1. In contrast, adenomatoid odontogenic tumors and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors are non‐invasive tumors characterized by low recurrence rates. Although these tumors are derived from the odontogenic epithelium, they differ in terms of their histogenesis 1.
Glypicans (GPC) are a family of proteoglycans that consists of six members (GPC 1‐6), highlighting glypican‐3 (GPC‐3). The GPC‐3 gene encodes a 70‐kDa surface protein 5 that consists of two subunits (N‐terminal and C‐terminal subunit) 6. High levels of the protein are found in embryonic tissues, while its expression is variable in tissues such as breast, ovary, and mesothelium 8. Glypican‐3 is widely used as a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma and has therefore been considered a therapeutic target of this tumor 10. Furthermore, glypican‐3 acts as a negative regulator of Hh activity by competing with PTCH1 for SHH binding 10 and components of the SHH pathway have been investigated in many odontogenic tumors 12.
Previous studies have shown that immunohistochemical markers help distinguish between tumors and odontogenic cysts 13. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies investigating glypican‐3 in odontogenic tumors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether this immunohistochemical marker could be used to distinguish aggressive from non‐aggressive odontogenic tumors.

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