Predictors of renal dysfunction after endovascular and open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms

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Abstract

Objective:

Renal complications after repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, limited data have assessed risk factors for renal complications in the endovascular era. This study aimed to identify predictors of renal complications after endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) and open repair.

Methods:

Patients who underwent EVAR or open repair of a nonruptured infrarenal AAA between 2011 and 2013 were identified in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project Targeted Vascular module. Patients on hemodialysis preoperatively were excluded. Renal complications were defined as new postoperative dialysis or creatinine increase >2 mg/dL. Patient demographics, comorbidities, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), operative details, and outcomes were compared using univariate analysis between those with and without renal complications. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of renal complications.

Results:

We identified 4503 patients who underwent elective repair of an infrarenal AAA (EVAR: 3869, open repair: 634). Renal complication occurred in 1% of patients after EVAR and in 5% of patients after open repair. There were no differences in comorbidities between patients with and without renal complications. A preoperative GFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 occurred more frequently among patients with renal complications (EVAR: 81% vs 37%, P < .01; open: 60% vs 34%, P < .01). The 30-day mortality was also significantly increased (EVAR: 55% vs 1%, P < .01; open: 30% vs 4%, P < .01). After adjustment, renal complications were strongly associated with 30-day mortality (odds ratio [OR], 38.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 20.4–71.9). Independent predictors of renal complications included GFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.4–8.7), open repair (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3–5.3), transfusion (OR, 6.1; 95% CI, 3.0–12.6), and prolonged operative time (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6–5.6).

Conclusions:

Predictors of renal complications include elevated baseline GFR, open approach, transfusion, and prolonged operative time. Given the dramatic increase in mortality associated with renal complications, care should be taken to use renal protective strategies, achieve meticulous hemostasis to limit transfusions, and to use an endovascular approach when technically feasible.

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