Characterization of oxycodonein vitrometabolism by human cytochromes P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases
The hepatic metabolism of oxycodone by cytochromes P450 (CYP) and the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT), the main metabolic enzymes of phase I and phase II, respectively, was assessed in vitro. The N-demethylation by CYP3A4/5 and the O-demethylation by CYP2D6 in human liver microsomes (HLM) followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with intrinsic clearances of 1.46 μL/min/mg and 0.35 μL/min/mg, respectively. Although noroxycodone and oxymorphone mainly contribute to the elimination of oxycodone, the simulated total in vivo clearance using in vitro phase I metabolism was underestimated. For the first time, metabolism of oxycodone by UGT was deeply investigated using HLM, recombinant enzymes and selective inhibitors. Oxycodone-glucuronide was mainly produced by UGT2B7 (Km = 762 ± 153 μM, Vmax = 344 ± 20 peak area/min/mg) and to a lesser extent by UGT2B4 (Km = 2454 ± 497 μM, Vmax = 201 ± 19 peak area/min/mg). Finally, the kinetics of the drug–drug interactions were assessed using two CYP and UGT cocktail approaches. Incubations of HLM with phase I and phase II drug probes showed that oxycodone mainly decreased the in vitro activities of CYP2D6, CYP3A4/5, UGT1A3, UGT1A6 and UGT2B subfamily with an important impact on UGT2B7.