The study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale–Revised (ASAS-R-CHI). A cross-sectional design was used to conduct this study, and the sample consisted of 1,219 older people, collected by a demographic questionnaire, ASAS-R-CHI and the Exercise of Self-Care Agency (ESCA) scale. The Cronbach’s alpha (α) of ASAS-R-CHI was .79, the test–retest correlation was 0.95, and the item-to-total correlations ranged from r = .41 to r = .74. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) resulted in three factors that explained 65.31% of the total variance; all 15 items had strong factor loadings ranging from 0.54 to 0.91. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated the three-factor solution of ASAS-R-CHI had a good fit (x2,chi-square/degree of freedom [CMIN/DF] = 2.61, goodness of fitness index [GFI] = 0.93, adjusted goodness of fit index [AGFI] = 0.92,, comparative fit index [CFI = 0.92], Tucker Lewis index [TLI] = 0.91, root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.04, root mean residual [RMR] = 0.02, P-value for test of close fit [PCLOSE] = 0.68). ASAS-R-CHI is a short, reliable, and valid instrument for measuring self-care agency among Chinese older adults.