Evaluation of sodium tetradecyl sulfate and polidocanol as sclerosants for leg telangiectasia based on histological evaluation with clinical correlation
This study was designed to determine by histological evaluation and clinical correlation the most effective sclerosant concentration of Sotradecol® (sodium tetradecyl sulfate) and Asclera® (polidocanol) for the treatment of leg telangiectasia.Methods
Histological studies were completed on 40 patients, all of whom were female with a mean age of 53. After sclerotherapy with varying concentrations of sclerosant solutions for the treatment of 0.8 mm and 1 mm leg telangiectasia, histological specimens were examined for the following criteria: luminal changes, subintimal changes, smooth muscle wall alterations, and vessel wall integrity. Six patients from this group were also treated with sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam 0.1%–0.2% or polidocanol foam 0.31% for the treatment of 2 mm reticular veins. In a second group of 20 patients, clinical results after treatment with sodium tetradecyl sulfate 0.15% and polidocanol 0.31% were evaluated.Results
Histological findings in patients treated with sodium tetradecyl sulfate 0.05% and polidocanol 0.25% were minimal. Sclerosant concentrations of sodium tetradecyl sulfate ≥0.2% revealed intraluminal debris and greater smooth wall damage. Polidocanol 0.5% was equivalent in strength to sodium tetradecyl sulfate 0.2% on histological evaluation. Sodium tetradecyl sulfate 0.15% and polidocanol 0.31% had similar findings on histological examination with mild smooth muscle wall changes, endothelial cell lysis, and subintimal layer damage. Reticular veins treated with 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.2% sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam and 0.31% polidocanol foam produced identical histological findings.Conclusion
Sodium tetradecyl sulfate 0.15% and polidocanol 0.31% based on histological evaluations and clinical correlation are the best sclerosant concentrations for 0.8 mm to 1 mm leg telangiectasia. Sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam is comparable to polidocanol foam at these concentrations as well.