Iodine Status and Growth In 0–2-Year-Old Infants With Cow's Milk Protein Allergy

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Abstract

Objectives:

The aim of the present article was to investigate iodine status and growth in cow's milk protein allergic infants and to identify potential predictors of iodine status and growth.

Methods:

Fifty-seven infants under 2 years of age were included in an observational cross-sectional study. Two spot urine samples were collected and analyzed for iodine, together with a 3-day food record and a food frequency questionnaire. Urine iodine concentrations were compared with the WHO cut-off values for iodine deficiency. Measurements of weight, length, and head circumference at birth and study inclusion were converted to standard deviation scores. Subgroup analyses were performed on different feeding patterns, according to weaning status.

Results:

Median age was 9 months. Median urinary iodine concentration was 159 ug/L. One third of the children had urine iodine concentrations indicating iodine deficiency. Infants who were mainly breastfed were at highest risk and 58% were classified as deficient. Dietary factors positively associated with iodine excretion were intake of enriched baby cereals and meeting the dietary requirement for iodine. Stunting was present in 5%. Underweight and wasting was frequent at 11% and this was associated with food refusal and poor appetite, but not with iodine status. Growth failure was detected among boys.

Conclusions:

The present study suggests that cow's milk protein allergy children have high prevalence of iodine deficiency and poor growth, however the 2 conditions were not associated. The subgroup of mainly breastfed infants was at higher risk of iodine deficiency compared to weaned infants. Subjects with feeding problems had increased risk of malnutrition.

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