Fluorescein-Assisted Subretinal Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Delivery For Submacular Hemorrhage

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Submacular hemorrhage is a potentially devastating complication of exudative age-related macular degeneration, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, and retinal arterial macroaneurysm—often resulting in poor visual acuity outcomes.1,2 Multiple mechanisms to explain resulting retinal and retinal pigment epithelium damage have been proposed, including photoreceptor shearing by clotted blood, loss of nutrient flow through fibrin clots, direct iron toxicity, and mechanical damage to the outer retina by clot contraction.

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