It is known fact that diabetes mellitus (DM) affects blood cells. Changes in the erythrocyte membrane, disorder in hemoglobin oxygen-binding and modification in mechanical characteristics, are effects of hyperglycemia on red blood cells. Altered susceptibility infection of patients with diabetes has been ascribed to a depression in the function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Neutrophil function in patients with diabetes with good glucose control is slightly different than in healthy ones. DM causes significant changes in lymphocytes metabolism and their functions. Patients with diabetes, presenting with acute coronary syndrome, are at higher risk of cardiovascular complications and recurrent ischemic events in comparison to non-diabetic counterparts. Various mechanisms, including endothelial dysfunction, platelet hyperactivity, and abnormalities in coagulation and fibrynolysis have been implicated for this increased atherothrombotic risk. There are many other alterations of blood cells due to DM. In the present review we focused on modifications of blood cells due to DM. Then, as a second point, we explored how the changes affect functions of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.