Atrial fibrillation in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: Insights into mechanisms and therapeutics
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) often coexist, and the outcomes of patients who have both AF and HF are considerably worse than those with either condition in isolation. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a heterogeneous clinical entity and accounts for approximately one-half of current HF. At least one-third of patients with HFpEF are burdened by comorbid AF. The current understanding of the relationship between AF and HFpEF is limited, but the clinical implications are potentially important. In this review, we explore 1) the pathogenesis that drives AF and HFpEF to coexist; 2) pharmacologic therapies that may attenuate the impact of AF in HFpEF; and 3) future directions in the management of this complex syndrome.