Endoplasmic reticulum stress in the regulation of liver diseases: Involvement of Regulated IRE1α and β-dependent decay and miRNA
Compromised protein folding capacity in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to a protein traffic jam that produces a toxic environment called ER stress. However, the ER smartly handles such a critical situation by activating a cascade of proteins responsible for sensing and responding to the noxious stimuli of accumulated proteins. The ER protein load is higher in secretory cells, such as liver hepatocytes, which are thus prone to stress-mediated toxicity and various diseases, including alcohol-induced liver injury, fatty liver disease, and viral hepatitis. Therefore, we discuss the molecular cues that connect ER stress to hepatic diseases. Moreover, we review the literature on ER stress-regulated miRNA in the pathogenesis of liver diseases to give a comprehensive overview of mechanistic insights connecting ER stress and miRNA in the context of liver diseases. We also discuss currently discovered regulated IRE1 dependent decay in regulation of hepatic diseases.