Natural history and effect of therapeutic interventions on subretinal fluid causing foveal detachment in macular telangiectasia type 2

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Abstract

Aim

To report the natural history of subretinal fluid (SRF) causing foveal detachment in macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel) and our experience of therapeutic intervention with intravitreal steroids or antivascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor (anti-VEGF) agents in some cases.

Methods

Retrospective case series. Three of the MacTel study's largest registries were searched to identify eyes with foveal detachment.

Results

We identified 7 eyes from 6 exclusively female patients. The prevalence of foveal detachment was low, present in 1.4% of the assessed MacTel population. Age at presentation ranged from 50 to 66 years. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 8 years. There was late-phase leakage on fluorescein angiography from what was presumed to be ectatic capillaries. The SRF fluctuated without a rapid decline in visual acuity in cases that were not treated. When they were, intravitreal anti-VEGF and steroid therapy in general reduced SRF, at least temporarily, but did not halt the gradual long-term decrease in visual acuity. In one case, optical coherence tomography angiography showed significant reduction in the extent of the predominantly deep intraretinal vascular complex 1 month after anti-VEGF therapy.

Discussion and conclusions

As the natural history of this unusual MacTel phenotype is not characterised by rapid visual decline, intervention with intravitreal anti-VEGF or steroid therapy may not be necessary.

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