Breast milk is the ideal food for human infants, with benefits to mothers and babies. However, working mothers are more likely to choose not to breastfeed or to interrupt breastfeeding prematurely. This study assessed breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes among working mothers in South Jordan. Four hundred cross-sectional, self-administered Arabic surveys were distributed to working mothers at their workplaces. In addition to measuring mothers’ knowledge of and attitudes toward breastfeeding, barriers that prevented continuing breastfeeding beyond 6 months were also explored. Three hundred forty-four (80%) completed questionnaires were returned. The breastfeeding initiation rate was 72.4%, but only 20.9% were exclusively breastfeeding by 6 months. The participants showed satisfactory knowledge about breastfeeding and had positive attitudes toward breastfeeding. Most of the women who initiated breastfeeding reported ending breastfeeding prematurely. Approximately 30% of the mothers attributed premature cessation of breastfeeding to work. The results of this study could be useful for health care providers and policy makers when planning effective breastfeeding promotion programs and creating breastfeeding-friendly workplaces.