Extraintestinal Manifestations of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Prevalence, Presentation, and Anti-TNF Treatment
There is a paucity of data on extraintestinal manifestations (EIM) and their treatment in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).Methods:
Since 2008, the Pediatric Swiss IBD Cohort Study has collected data on the pediatric IBD population in Switzerland. Data on 329 patients were analyzed retrospectively.Results:
A total of 55 patients (16.7%) experienced 1–4 EIM (39 Crohn disease, 12 ulcerative colitis, and 4 IBD-unclassified patients). At IBD onset, presence of EIM was more frequent than in the adult population (8.5% vs 5.0%, P = 0.014). EIM were more frequent in Crohn disease when compared to ulcerative colitis/IBD-unclassified (22.5% vs 10.3%, P = 0.003). The most prevalent EIM were peripheral arthritis (26/329, 7.9%) and aphthous stomatitis (24/329, 7.3%). Approximately 27.6% of all EIM appeared before IBD diagnosis. Median time between IBD diagnosis and occurrence of first EIM was 1 month (−37.5–149.0). Thirty-one of the 55 patients (56.4%) were treated with 1 or more anti–tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents. IBD patients with EIM were more likely to be treated with anti-TNF compared to those without (56.4% vs 35.0%, P = 0.003). Response rates to anti-TNF depended on underlying EIM and were best for peripheral arthritis (61.5%) and uveitis (66.7%).Conclusions:
In a cohort of pediatric patients with IBD, EIM were frequently encountered. In up to 30%, EIM appeared before IBD diagnosis. Knowledge of these findings may translate into an increased awareness of underlying IBD, thereby decreasing diagnostic delay. Anti-TNF for the treatment of certain EIM is effective, although a substantial proportion of new EIM may present despite ongoing anti-TNF therapy.