Percutaneous management of failed bioprosthetic pulmonary valves in patients with congenital heart defects
We reviewed our center experience in the field of transcatheter pulmonary valve-in-valve implantation (TPViV), that is emerging as a treatment option for patients with pulmonary bioprosthetic valve (BPV) dysfunction.Methods
Between April 2008 and September 2015, a total of six patients with congenital heart disease (four men) underwent TPViV due to stenosis of preexisting BPV. Four patients received a Melody Medtronic Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve and two an Edward Sapien Valve.Results
No procedural-related complications occurred. After valve implantation, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP, 80.5 ± 25.3–41.2 ± 8.35 mmHg, P < 0.05), right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) gradient (55.3 ± 23.4–10.6 ± 3.8 mmHg, P < 0.05), and RVSP-to-aortic pressure (0.75 ± 0.21–0.38 ± 0.21, P = 0.01) fell significantly. Echocardiograms at follow-up revealed a significant reduction in estimated RVSP (88.7 ± 22–21.7 ± 4.7 mmHg, P < 0.05), in RVOT (76.2 ± 17.9–25.7 ± 6.1 mmHg, P = 0.005), and in mean RVOT (40.7 ± 9.9–15.5 ± 4.8 mmHg, P < 0.05) gradients. Cardiac magnetic resonance showed no significant change in biventricular dimensions and function. Symptomatic patients reported improvement of symptoms, although cardiopulmonary exercise did not show any significant differences.Conclusion
TPViV is an effective and well tolerated treatment for BPV dysfunction, improving freedom from surgical reintervention. Long-term studies will redefine the management of dysfunctional RVOT, either native or surrogate.