Successful Treatment of Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis in a Child With Leukemia

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Abstract

Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) is a rare fulminant opportunistic fungal infection that despite relevant treatment has high mortality. We present a case of a 3-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and ROCM, who was treated successfully with excessive surgery, systemic antifungal treatment with amphotericin B (AmB), posaconazole, and terbinafine as well as hyperbaric oxygen. Surgery included, beside extracranial and intracranial removal of infected areas, endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery with local AmB installation and in addition placement of an Ommaya reservoir for 114 intrathecal administrations of AmB. In addition, we review the literature of ROCM in pediatric patients with hematological diseases.

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