Selenium‐enriched Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves growth, antioxidant status and selenoprotein gene expression in Arbor Acres broilers

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The trace mineral selenium (Se) is an essential element for human and animal nutrition, and it may enhance immune function (Baowei et al., 2011), reproductive performance and resistance to oxidative stress (Kaur and Bansal, 2005). Se deficiency has been linked to white muscle disease, exudative diathesis and suppression of immunity in animals (Baowei et al., 2011), and Keshan disease, Kaschin–Beck disease and cancer in humans (Rayman, 2000; Wu et al., 2010a,b; Loef et al., 2011). Consequently, an adequate Se intake is needed to decrease the risk of Se deficiency (Loef et al., 2011). In China, Se deficiency is common because of low Se levels in the soil; thus, supplementation of diets with Se is a common practice in the livestock and poultry industries. Forms of nutritional Se include inorganic and organic Se sources. Compared with inorganic Se, organic Se is a highly available form for animals, and it provides a greater level of antioxidant protection (Mahan et al., 1999; Mahmoud and Edens, 2003). Moreover, organic Se is usually less toxic than inorganic Se (Wu et al., 2010a,b). Thus, there are more studies of organic Se (e.g., Se‐enriched yeast) than inorganic Se (sodium selenite (SS)) (Pan et al., 2007, 2011; Qin et al., 2007).
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not only the most useful yeast, with a crucial role in winemaking, baking and brewing since ancient times, but it also serves as an ideal carrier for converting inorganic Se to organic Se because of its high Se absorption rate (Kieliszek et al., 2015). Currently, it is an important by‐product, as yeast slurry accounts for 0.15% of beer production (dry substance), and it could be used as an alternative feed additive because of its high protein content. In view of these facts, we have successfully used yeast slurry to develop Se‐enriched S. cerevisiae (SSC) containing 1.0–2.0 g/kg Se, with an organic Se content of greater than 90%. Scarce data exist regarding the use of SSC in livestock and poultry (Baowei et al., 2011; Chen et al., 2014; Jiang et al., 2015). Moreover, there are only a few studies that have analysed the bioavailability and biological activity of SSC in Arbor Acres (AA) broilers (Chen et al., 2014). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability and biological activity of SSC as a feed additive by investigating its effects on growth, antioxidant status and cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPX‐1) and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPX‐4) mRNA levels in AAbroilers.
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