Analysis of Sagittal Parameters in Patients Undergoing One- or Two-Level Closing Wedge Osteotomy for Correcting Thoracolumbar Kyphosis Secondary to Ankylosing Spondylitis

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Abstract

Study Design.

Retrospective analysis of clinical records.

Objective.

To assess and compare the improvement in sagittal balance after one- or two-level closing wedge osteotomy for correcting thoracolumbar kyphosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis (AS).

Summary of Background Data.

Closing wedge osteotomy represents a common approach to correct kyphosis in AS. Although several reports have described the outcomes of one- or two-level closing wedge osteotomy in terms of sagittal parameters, data comparing the outcomes of these procedures are scarce.

Methods.

Between January 2010 and December 2014, 22 patients with AS underwent closing wedge osteotomy (one-level, 12 patients; two-level, 10 patients) for correcting thoracolumbar kyphosis (mean follow-up, 24.8 months; range, 12–60 months). Preoperative and postoperative chin-brow vertical angle, and the sagittal parameters of the vertebral osteotomy segment were documented and compared. Perioperative and postoperative complications were also recorded.

Results.

The chin-brow vertical angle improved significantly, from 55.0° ± 27.3° to 4.7° ± 4.9° and from 38.2° ± 14.9° to 3.2° ± 5.4° in the one-level and two-level groups, respectively. The total correction (thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis) was 32.8° ± 18.2° and 53.7° ± 9.4° in the one-level and two-level groups, respectively. No death, complete paralysis, or vascular complications occurred during the procedure, but cerebrospinal fluid leak was noted in one and two patients from the one-level and two-level groups, respectively. A distal pedicle screw adjacent to the osteotomy segment became loose during surgery in one patient (one-level group). Postoperatively, no transient neurological deficit, infection, delay union, or loosening or breaking of the internal fixation devices was observed. Osteotomy site fusion was achieved in all patients, and the Oswestry Disability Index scores improved significantly.

Conclusion.

Closing wedge osteotomy is effective and safe for correcting thoracolumbar kyphosis in patients with AS. Significant correction and improvement in all sagittal parameters were noted in both groups, but two-level closing wedge osteotomy provided better correction.

Conclusion.

Level of Evidence: 3

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