Critical role of Toll-like receptors in pathophysiology of allergic asthma
Allergic asthma is an airway disease, characterized by reversible bronchoconstriction, chronic inflammation of the airway, and thickness of smooth muscle in the respiratory tract. Asthma is orchestrated by an excessive Th2-adaptive immune response, in which innate immunity plays a key role. Recently TLRs have received more and more attention as they are central to orchestrate the innate immune responses. TLRs are localized as integral membrane or intracellular glycoproteins with those on the cell surface sensing microbial antigens and the ones, localized in intracellular vesicles, sensing microbial nucleic acid species. Having recognized microbial antigens, TLRs conduct the immune response towards a pro- or anti-allergy response. As a double-edged sword, they could initiate either harmful or helpful responses by the immune system in case of allergic asthma. In the current review, we will describe the role of TLRs and their signaling pathways in allergic asthma.