Update on pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma

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Abstract

Purpose of review

The present article reviews the clinical features and pathogenesis of pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma and provides an update regarding their diagnosis and management.

Recent findings

Newer imaging modalities including ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography facilitate visualization of the iris concavity characteristic of eyes with pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Patients with pigmentary glaucoma may be distinguished from those with other glaucoma types by the presence of typical symptoms, personality type, and patterns of diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuation. Although laser iridotomy has been shown to alter iris anatomy in pigmentary glaucoma, it is not proven to slow visual field progression. Multiple trials have validated the safety and efficacy of filtering surgery in treating pigmentary glaucoma, with fewer studies published on the role of micro-invasive glaucoma surgery.

Summary

Literature from the review period has further defined the unique clinical characteristics of pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Laser surgery has a limited role in the management of these entities, whereas trabeculectomy remains an acceptable first-line surgical treatment. Further studies are needed to define the potential application of the newer micro-invasive glaucoma procedures in pigmentary glaucoma.

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