Effect of rituximab on malignancy risk in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis

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Patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) treated with cyclophosphamide have an increased malignancy risk compared with the general population. We investigated whether treatment with rituximab instead of cyclophosphamide has decreased the malignancy risk in patients with AAV.


The study included patients with AAV treated at a tertiary vasculitis referral centre between 2000 and 2014. The malignancy incidence in these patients was compared with the incidence in the general population by calculating standardised incidence ratios (SIRs), adjusted for sex, age and calendar year. Malignancy incidence was compared between rituximab-treated and cyclophosphamide-treated patients.


Of the 323 included patients, 33 developed a total of 45 malignancies during a mean follow-up of 5.6 years. This represented a 1.89-fold increased (95% CI 1.38 to 2.53) malignancy risk, and a non-significantly increased risk if non-melanoma skin cancer was excluded (SIR, 1.09; 95% CI 0.67 to 1.69). The risk of non-melanoma skin cancer was 4.58-fold increased (95% CI 2.96 to 6.76). Cyclophosphamide-treated patients had an increased malignancy risk compared with the general population (SIR, 3.10; 95% CI 2.06 to 4.48). In contrast, rituximab-treated patients had a malignancy risk similar to the general population (SIR, 0.67; 95% CI 0.08 to 2.43). The malignancy risk in cyclophosphamide-treated patients was 4.61-fold higher (95% CI 1.16 to 39.98) than in rituximab-treated patients.


The malignancy risk in patients with AAV was lower in rituximab-treated patients than in cyclophosphamide-treated patients. Notably, rituximab treatment was not associated with an increased malignancy risk compared with the general population. Rituximab could therefore be a safe alternative to cyclophosphamide in the treatment of AAV.

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