To determine minimal endoillumination levels required to perform 3-dimensional heads-up vitreoretinal surgery and to correlate endoillumination levels used for measurements of heads-up display (HUD) luminous emittance.Methods:
Prospective, observational surgical case series of 10 patients undergoing vitreoretinal surgery. Endoillumination levels were set to 40% of maximum output and were decreased at set intervals until the illumination level was 0%. Corresponding luminous emittance (lux) of the HUD was measured 40 cm from the display using a luxmeter (Dr. Meter, Model #LX1010BS).Results:
In 9 of 10 cases, the surgeon felt that they could operate comfortably at an endoillumination level of 10% of maximum output with corresponding HUD emittance of 14.3 ± 9.5 lux. In the remaining case, the surgeon felt comfortable at a 3% endoillumination level with corresponding HUD emittance of 15 lux. Below this threshold, subjective image dimness and digital noise limited visibility. Endoillumination levels were correlated with luminous emittance from the 3-dimensional HUD (P < 0.01). The average coefficient of variation of HUD luminance was 0.546. There were no intraoperative complications.Conclusion:
With real-time digital processing and automated brightness control, 3-dimensional HUD platforms may allow for reduced intraoperative endoillumination levels and a theoretically reduced risk of retinal phototoxicity during vitreoretinal surgery.