Interphase fluorescencein situhybridization in untreated AL amyloidosis has an independent prognostic impact by abnormality type and treatment category

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Abstract

The significance of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) by regimen type was assessed in 692 immunoglobulin lightchain (AL) amyloidosis patients with iFISH at diagnosis. First-line treatment was categorized as stem cell transplant and three nontransplant regimens. The most common abnormality was t(11;14) (49% of patients) followed by monosomy 13/del(13q) (36%) and trisomies (26%). A lower rate of very good partial response (VGPR) or better was observed in patients with t(11;14) treated with bortezomib-based (52% vs 77%; P = 0.004) and IMiD-based regimens (13% vs 54%; P = 0.04) compared with those lacking t(11;14). This corresponded to an inferior overall survival (OS) in t(11;14)-positive bortezomib-treated (median 15 vs 27 months; P = 0.05) and IMiD-treated patients (median 12 vs 32 months; P = 0.05). The inferior OS associated with t(11;14) bortezomib-treated patients was restricted to patients with favorable disease. Trisomies were associated with a shorter OS (median 29 vs 69 months; P = 0.001), reaching statistical significance only for melphalan (median 15 vs 32 months; P = 0.02). Multivariate analysis confirmed an independent survival impact for trisomies in the entire cohort and for t(11;14) among bortezomib-treated patients. iFISH is prognostic in untreated AL amyloidosis and may influence treatment selection. Patients with t(11;14) should be considered for ASCT or standard-dose melphalan at diagnosis because the survival disadvantage may be abrogated.

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