Antitissue Transglutaminase Normalization Postdiagnosis in Children With Celiac Disease
Limited pediatric data exist examining the trend and predictors of antitissue transglutaminase (atTG) normalization over time in children with celiac disease (CD). We aimed to evaluate time to normalization of atTG in children after CD diagnosis, and to assess for independent predictors affecting this duration.Methods:
A retrospective chart review was completed in pediatric patients with CD diagnosed from 2007 to 2014 at the Stollery Children's Hospital Celiac Clinic (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada). The clinical predictors assessed for impact on time to atTG normalization were initial atTG, Marsh score at diagnosis, gluten-free diet compliance (GFDC), age at diagnosis, sex, ethnicity, medical comorbidities, and family history of CD. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was completed to assess time to atTG normalization, and Cox regression to assess for independent predictors of this time.Results:
A total of 487 patients met inclusion criteria. Approximately 80.5% of patients normalized atTG levels. Median normalization time was 407 days for all patients (95% confidence interval [CI: 361–453]), and 364 days for gluten-free diet compliant patients (95% CI [335–393]). Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients took significantly longer to normalize at 1204 days (95% CI [199–2209], P < 0.001). Cox regression demonstrated T1DM (hazard ratio = 0.36 [0.24–0.55], P < 0.001) and higher baseline atTG (hazard ratio = 0.52 [0.43–0.63], P < 0.001) were significant predictors of longer atTG normalization time. GFDC was a significant predictor of earlier normalization (OR = 13.91 [7.86–24.62], P < 0.001).Conclusions:
GFDC and lower atTG at diagnosis are predictors of earlier normalization. Patients with T1DM are less likely to normalize atTG levels, with longer normalization time. Additional research and education for higher-risk populations are needed.