Pulmonary Innate Immune Dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus
The advent of antiretroviral therapy has transformed infection by the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from a rapidly fatal disease to a chronic illness with excellent long-term survival rates. Although HIV primarily targets the adaptive arm of host immunity, it simultaneously impacts the innate immune system, and has profound implications for lung health, even when viral suppression is achieved with antiretroviral therapy. The lung has evolved a unique array of innate immune defenses, and the pathophysiological interactions between HIV and the pulmonary innate immune system deserve particular attention. In this review, we discuss work that elucidates how the components of innate immunity both respond to and are perturbed by infection with HIV.