Preeclampsia and the Risk of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Preterm Infants Less Than 32 Weeks' Gestation

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Abstract

Objective

Angiogenesis is essential for normal lung development. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that preeclampsia, an antiangiogenic state, is a risk factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

Design

Prospective cohort study of infants less than 32 weeks' gestation born to mothers with preeclampsia between January 2007 and June 2010 at a single tertiary care center. Their BPD outcome was compared with infants born to the next two normotensive mothers with a ± 1 week gestational age difference. BPD was defined as oxygen dependency at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. Multivariable binary regression was used to estimate the risk ratio (RR) of BPD with preeclampsia exposure and adjust for confounders.

Results

Of 102 infants in the preeclampsia group, 23 (23%) developed BPD and of the 217 infants in the normotensive group, 56 (26%) developed BPD. On multivariable binary regression modeling, preeclampsia was not a risk factor for development of BPD (RR: 0.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20–1.20). Surfactant use, Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology Perinatal Extension-II score, sepsis, blood transfusion, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were significant risk factors for BPD.

Conclusion

In our cohort, preeclampsia was not a significant risk factor for BPD. IUGR infants of preeclamptic and normotensive mothers were at higher risk for BPD.

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