Clinicopathological analysis and risk factors of advanced colorectal neoplasms incidentally detected by 18F-FDG PET-CT

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Abstract

Background

As the clinical use of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET-computed tomography (18F-FDG PET-CT) has increased, the incidental finding of 18F-FDG uptake with subsequent diagnosis of advanced neoplasm at colorectum has increased. The aim of this study is to analyze the characteristics and risk factors of advanced colorectal neoplasm incidentally detected by 18F-FDG PET-CT.

Patients and methods

Patients who underwent colonoscopy because of an incidental finding of 18F-FDG uptake at the colorectum from January 2006 to January 2015 at Yeungnam University Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Advanced neoplasm was defined as adenoma of at least 10 mm, adenoma with serrated or villous component, high-grade dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma.

Results

Of the 19 798 candidates, 180 patients with incidental colorectal 18F-FDG uptake were included in this study. The indications of PET-CT were metastasis work-up, health screening, and others. The male to female ratio was 1.6 : 1 and the mean age was 62.7±11.4 years. A total of 156 lesions were detected in the colorectum and 86 (47.8%) were diagnosed as advanced neoplasms. Of the 86 patients with advanced neoplasms, 34 (39.5%) underwent an operation, 34 (39.5%) underwent endoscopic resection, and 18 (20.9%) underwent chemotherapy or conservative treatments. In univariate analysis, age of 62.5 years or older, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) of at least 3.4 ng/ml, maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of at least 8.0, hypertension, 18F-FDG uptake on the rectosigmoid, and PET-CT for metastasis work-up showed a significant association with advanced neoplasm. In multivariate analysis, CEA (P=0.028), SUVmax (P<0.001) and an indication of PET-CT for metastasis work-up (P=0.008) were independent predictors of advanced neoplasm.

Conclusion

Colonoscopy should be recommended in case of 18F-FDG uptake at the colorectum, particularly in patients with CEA of at least 3.4 ng/ml, SUVmax of at least 8.0, or metastasis work-up of malignancy.

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