Bond strengths of porcelain to cobalt-chromium alloys made by casting, milling, and selective laser melting

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Statement of problem.

Cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys have been widely used for metal-ceramic fixed prostheses and can be fabricated using conventionally cast or new computer-aided technology. However, the effect of different manufacturing methods on the metal-ceramic bond strength needs further evaluation.


The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the metal-ceramic bond strength of a Co-Cr alloy made by casting, milling, and selective laser melting (SLM).

Material and methods.

Co-Cr specimens (25×3×0.5 mm) were prepared using a cast, milled, or SLM method and layered with ceramic (8×3×1.1 mm). Metal-ceramic bond strength was measured by a 3-point bend test according to ISO9693. The area fraction of adherence porcelain (AFAP) was determined by measuring the Si content of the specimens with scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The metal-ceramic bond strength and AFAP results were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni post hoc test (α=.05). SEM/EDS and metallurgic microscopy were also used to study the specimens’ morphology, elemental composition, and metallurgic structure.


No significant differences (P>.05) were found for the bond strength among cast, milled, and SLM Co-Cr alloys. The milled and SLM groups showed significantly more porcelain adherence than the cast group (P<.001). The surface morphologies and oxidation characters of cast, milled, and SLM Co-Cr alloys were similar, whereas the metallurgic structures were different.


The bond strength between ceramics and Co-Cr alloys is independent of the manufacturing method. However, milling- and SLM-produced alloys had better porcelain adherence.

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