Molecularly imprinted polymer for glutathione by modified precipitation polymerization and its application to determination of glutathione in supplements
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) particles for glutathione (GSH) with a narrow particle size distribution were prepared by modified precipitation polymerization using methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, divinylbenzene as a crosslinker and water as a co-solvent. The particle diameters of the MIP and non-imprinted polymer (NIP) prepared under the optimum conditions were 3.81 ± 0.95 (average ± standard deviation) and 3.39 ± 1.22 μm, respectively. The retention and molecular-recognition properties of the prepared MIP were evaluated using a mixture of acetonitrile and water as a mobile phase in hydrophilic interaction chromatography. With an increase of acetonitrile content, the retention factor of GSH was increased on the MIP. In addition to shape recognition, hydrophilic interactions seem to work for the recognition of GSH on the MIP. The MIP had a specific molecular-recognition ability for GSH, while glutathione disulfide, l-Glu, l-Cys, Gly-Gly and l-Cys-Gly could not be retained or recognized on the MIP. The effect of column temperature revealed that the separation of GSH on the MIP was entropically driven. Binding experiments and Scatchard analyses revealed that one binding sites were formed on both the MIP and NIP, while the MIP gave higher affinity and capacity for GSH than the NIP. Furthermore, the MIP was successfully applied for determination of GSH in the supplements.