We evaluated the impact of postprandial hyperglycemia at clinic visits on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and all-cause mortality independently of mean glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes patients in a real-world setting.Materials and Methods:
The present retrospective observational cohort study included 646 type 2 diabetes patients. All of the participants had their initial consultations at the Institute for Diabetes Care and Research, Asahi Life Foundation affiliated Marunouchi Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, during the period from 1995 to 1996, visited the clinic ≥4 times, had their 2-h post-breakfast blood glucose (2h-PBBG) levels measured and were followed up for ≥1 year. The 646 patients were followed up for survival. Of the 646 patients, 618 had no history of CVD at the first visit and had measured 2h-PBBG until the first CVD onset or censorings. These two cohorts were followed up through June 2012, and subsequently questionnaires were mailed. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the risk of CVD incidence and death.Results:
CVD occurred in 78 patients, and 56 patients died. The median follow-up periods of the CVD cohort and the mortality cohort were 15.6 and 15.9 years, respectively. The mean 2h-PBBG is a significant predictor of the CVD incidence and all-cause mortality after adjusting for the mean glycosylated hemoglobin, the number of 2h-PBBG measurements, age, sex and classical risk factors.Conclusions:
Postprandial hyperglycemia represented by the mean level of 2h-PBBG at clinic visits is associated with CVD incidence and all-cause mortality independently of the mean glycosylated hemoglobin level in type 2 diabetes patients. Prospective interventional trials are warranted to confirm the present findings.
Postprandial hyperglycemia represented by the mean level of 2-h post-breakfast blood glucose at clinic visits is associated with the incidence of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality independently of the mean HbA1c level in type 2 diabetes patients in a real-world setting. Prospective interventional trials are warranted to confirm our findings.