Incidence of a Bifid Mandibular Condyle in Dry Mandibles

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A bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) is a rare anatomical variation with an etiology not fully understood. Although there are numerous case reports regarding it, purposeful epidemiological investigations on the BMC frequency among different groups are scarce. This study aims to investigate the incidence and laterality of BMC among series of adult males from Bulgaria and perform a morphometric analysis of it.

Materials and methods:

A series of 500 dry intact mandibles from adult males was investigated. The condyles were macroscopically observed and when skulls were available, the corresponding mandibular fossae were also inspected. In the cases when bifid condyles were found, 27 measurements were taken.


Bifid mandibular condyle was observed in 4 (0.8%) mandibles. All of the cases were unilateral, 2 on the right side (0.4%) and 2 on the left (0.4%). The condyles were divided into medial and lateral heads by a sagittal fissure or a notch.


The established frequency of BMC was comparable with those reported in Turkish and Korean populations. The lack of injury marks and traces implies a developmental etiology of this condition.

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