18F-FCho PET and MRI for the prediction of response in glioblastoma patients according to the RANO criteria

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Abstract

Purpose

In this study, we investigated fluorine-18 fluoromethylcholine (18F-FCho) PET and contrast-enhanced MRI for predicting therapy response in glioblastoma (GB) patients according to the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria. Our second aim was to investigate which imaging modality enabled prediction of treatment response first.

Materials and methods

Eleven GB patients who underwent no surgery or debulking only and received concomitant radiation therapy (RT) and temozolomide were included. The gold standard Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria were applied 6 months after RT to define responders and nonresponders. 18F-FCho PET and MRI were performed before RT, during RT (week 2, 4, and 6), and 1 month after RT. The contrast-enhancing tumor volume on T1-weighted MRI (GdTV) and the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) were calculated. GdTV, standardized uptake value (SUV)mean, SUVmax, MTV, MTV×SUVmean, and percentage change of these variables between all time-points were assessed to differentiate responders from nonresponders.

Results

Absolute SUV values did not predict response. MTV must be taken into account. 18F-FCho PET could predict response with a 100% sensitivity and specificity using MTV×SUVmean 1 month after RT. A decrease in GdTV between week 2 and 6, week 4 and 6 during RT and week 2 during RT, and 1 month after RT of at least 31%, at least 18%, and at least 53% predicted response with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. As such, the parameter that predicts therapy response first is MR derived, namely, GdTV.

Conclusion

Our data indicate that both 18F-FCho PET and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI can predict response early in GB patients treated with RT and temozolomide.

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