Cooperation among heterogeneous prostate cancer cells in the bone metastatic niche

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid


The growth of disseminated tumor cells into metastatic lesions depends on the establishment of a favorable microenvironment in the stroma of the target organs. Here we show that mice treated with anakinra, an antagonist of the interleukin (IL)-1β receptor (IL-1R), or harboring a targeted deletion of IL-1R are significantly less prone to develop bone tumors when inoculated in the arterial circulation with human prostate cancer (PCa) cells expressing IL-1β. Interestingly, human mesenchymal stem cells exposed in vitro to medium conditioned by IL-1β-expressing cancer cells responded by upregulating S100A4, a marker of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and this effect was blocked by anakinra. Analogously, the stroma adjacent to skeletal metastases generated in mice by IL-1β-expressing cancer cells showed a dramatic increase in S100A4, COX-2 and the alteration of 30 tumor-related genes as measured by Nanostring analysis. These effects were not observed in the stroma associated with the rare and much smaller metastases generated by the same cells in IL-1R knockout animals, confirming that tumor-secreted IL-1β generates skeletal CAFs and conditions the surrounding bone microenvironment. In skeletal lesions from patients with metastatic PCa, histological and molecular analyses revealed that IL-1β is highly expressed in cancer cells in which the androgen receptor (AR) is not detected (AR-), whereas this cytokine is uniformly absent in the AR-positive (AR+) metastatic cells. The stroma conditioned by IL-1β-expressing cancer cells served as a supportive niche also for coexisting IL-1β-lacking cancer cells, which are otherwise unable to generate tumors after independently seeding the skeleton of mice. This niche is established very early following tumor seeding and hints to a role of IL-1β in promoting early colonization of PCa at the skeletal level.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles