Three-dimensional image fusion of preoperative computed tomography (CT) angiography with fluoroscopy using intraoperative noncontrast cone-beam CT (CBCT) has been shown to improve endovascular procedures by reducing procedure length, radiation dose, and contrast media volume. However, patients with a contraindication to CT angiography (renal insufficiency, iodinated contrast allergy) may not benefit from this image fusion technique. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and fluoroscopy image fusion using noncontrast CBCT as a guidance tool during complex endovascular aortic procedures, especially in patients with renal insufficiency.Methods:
All endovascular aortic procedures done under MRA image fusion guidance at a single-center were retrospectively reviewed. The patients had moderate to severe renal insufficiency and underwent diagnostic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging after gadolinium or ferumoxytol injection. Relevant vascular landmarks electronically marked in MRA images were overlaid on real-time two-dimensional fluoroscopy for image guidance, after image fusion with noncontrast intraoperative CBCT. Technical success, time for image registration, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, number of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) acquisitions before stent deployment or vessel catheterization, and renal function before and after the procedure were recorded. The image fusion accuracy was qualitatively evaluated on a binary scale by three physicians after review of image data showing virtual landmarks from MRA on fluoroscopy.Results:
Between November 2012 and March 2016, 10 patients underwent endovascular procedures for aortoiliac aneurysmal disease or aortic dissection using MRA image fusion guidance. All procedures were technically successful. A paired t-test analysis showed no difference between preimaging and postoperative renal function (P = .6). The mean time required for MRA-CBCT image fusion was 4:09 ± 01:31 min:sec. Total fluoroscopy time was 20.1 ± 6.9 minutes. Five of 10 patients (50%) underwent stent graft deployment without any predeployment DSA acquisition. Three of six vessels (50%) were cannulated under image fusion guidance without any precannulation DSA runs, and the remaining vessels were cannulated after one planning DSA acquisition. Qualitative evaluation showed 14 of 22 virtual landmarks (63.6%) from MRA overlaid on fluoroscopy were completely accurate, without the need for adjustment. Five of eight incorrect virtual landmarks (iliac and visceral arteries) resulted from vessel deformation caused by endovascular devices.Conclusions:
Ferumoxytol or gadolinium-enhanced MRA imaging and image fusion with fluoroscopy using noncontrast CBCT is feasible and allows patients with renal insufficiency to benefit from optimal guidance during complex endovascular aortic procedures, while preserving their residual renal function.