Endoscopic Sleeve Gastroplasty Significantly Reduces Body Mass Index and Metabolic Complications in Obese Patients

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Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS

Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is an incisionless, minimally invasive bariatric procedure that reduces the length and width of the gastric cavity to facilitate weight loss. We performed a prospective study to evaluate the effects of ESG on total body weight loss and obesity-related comorbidities.

METHODS

We collected data from 91 consecutive patients (mean age, 43.86 ± 11.26 years; 68% female) undergoing ESG from August 2013 through March 2016. All patients had a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m2 and had failed noninvasive weight-loss measures or had a BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 and were not considered as surgical candidates or refused surgery. All procedures were performed with a cap-based flexible endoscopic suturing system to facilitate a triangular pattern of sutures to imbricate the greater curvature of the stomach. Patients were evaluated after 6 months (n = 73), 12 months (n = 53), and 24 months (n = 12) for anthropometric features (BMI, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure) and underwent serologic (hemoglobin A1c), lipid panel, serum triglycerides, and liver function tests. The primary outcomes were total body weight loss at 6, 12, and 24 months. Secondary outcomes were the effects of ESG on metabolic factors (blood pressure, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, steatohepatitis) and safety.

RESULTS

The patients’ mean BMI before the procedure was 40.7 ± 7.0 kg/m2. Patients had lost 14.4% of their total body weight at 6 months (80% follow-up rate), 17.6% at 12 months (76% follow-up rate), and 20.9% at 24 months (66% follow-up rate) after ESG. At 12 months after ESG, patients had statistically significant reductions in levels of hemoglobin A1c (P= .01), systolic blood pressure (P= .02), waist circumference (P< .001), alanine aminotransferase (P< .001), and serum triglycerides (P= .02). However, there was no significant change in low-density lipoprotein after vs before ESG (P= .79). There was one serious adverse event (1.1%) (perigastric leak) that occurred that was managed non-operatively.

CONCLUSIONS

ESG is a minimally invasive and effective endoscopic weight loss intervention. In addition to sustained total body weight loss up to 24 months, ESG reduced markers of hypertension, diabetes, and hypertriglyceridemia.

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